Two New Eclipse Publicatons

Before I retired from NASA in 2009, I published a dozen special bulletins on upcoming solar eclipses as well as several other canons and catalogs of eclipses. I had a small but adequate budget for these publications as well as a great technical editor and page layout specialist. Goddard also had special contracts with companies to print these books very economically. I would typically order 2000 copies of each publication and store them in boxes stacked in my cramped office.

After retiring, I wondered how I could continue publishing eclipse bulletins (with meteorologist Jay Anderson’s essential contribution on eclipse weather) and other publications without the financial backing of NASA. I certainly didn’t want to lay out a big investment in pre-ordering hundreds of books which I would need to warehouse, not to mention handling orders, stuffing envelopes and dragging them to the post office for mailing.

Fortunately, print-on-demand (POD) services have become very popular in the last few years. You submit a finished manuscript in PDF format to the POD service. They print and mail the book as each order comes in. This seemed like the perfect solution for me – no up-front money, no pre-orders of books to store, package and mail. But how well does POD work? How quickly are the books printed and shipped? How good is the quality of the books and is the cost reasonable? I needed to test this process from start to finish. After a lot of research on-line about POD services, I decided to use CreateSpace, a subsidiary of Amazon.

When Jean Meeus and I published the Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses and its companion volume the Five Millennium Catalog of Solar Eclipses there was no plan to produce future canons. But in the years that followed, I found I was using the 1000–year period encompassing the present era of these two publications far more often than the rest. I began thinking how convenient it would be to have a subset of the Canon and Catalog in a single smaller volume.

The cover of the Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses.

The cover of the Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses.

This was the start of what ultimately became the Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500 and a test case for the entire print-on-demand process. As the design of the book took shape, new features were developed to distinguish it from the Five Millennium Canon. Most notably, the maps would be larger with 12 per page instead of 20. This increase in map size makes it easier to discern regions of eclipse visibility and, in addition, more curves of constant eclipse magnitude (25%, 50%, and 75%, instead of only 50%) can be included. Larger maps also allow the addition of more data including Delta T and the lunar node of the eclipse.

This sample map from the Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses shows the much anticipated total solar eclipse of 2017 through the United States.

This sample map from the Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses shows the much anticipated total solar eclipse of 2017 through the United States. (Click to enlarge)

I also decided to use the Jet Propulsion Lab’s DE406 — a computer ephemeris used for calculating high precision coordinates of the Sun and the Moon for thousands of years into the past and future. This is the basic foundation of any eclipse predictions and I wanted to compare the results to the NASA canons that used an older ephemeris for computing celestial coordinates.

I began writing the narrative and explanatory sections of the book in mid-2013 while simultaneously working on the software to generate the improved maps.The very same arguments for publishing a new solar eclipse canon were equally applicable to a complementary volume on lunar eclipses. So I found myself working on the manuscript of the Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500 at the same time.

The cover of the Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses.

The cover of the Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses.

The 1000-year period of the new solar eclipse canon includes 2,389 eclipses and there are individual maps for each one. Lunar eclipses occur slightly more frequently, so the new lunar eclipse canon covers 2,424 eclipses with a map and diagram for each. The two books include a tabular catalogs that lists the most essential parameters to characterize each eclipse.

In the spring of 2014, Patrick Poitevin pressed me for a title and abstract for a presentation I was giving at the 2014 International Solar Eclipse Conference in October. So I submitted an abstract about the two new eclipse canons. Nothing motivates me as much as a concrete deadline!

Now I had to get serious about finishing the manuscripts, finalizing the mapping software, generating 400 pages of maps, and doing the page layout for the two books. I also had to learn the ins-and-outs of ISBN numbers, designing book covers, and submitting the assembled manuscripts to CreateSpace. In the final stages of these projects, I realized that I could also publish a slightly more costly color edition of each, so I had four manuscripts with which to negotiate the approval process with CreateSpace.

A sample figure from the Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses shows the upcoming total lunar eclipse of October 8.

A sample figure from the Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses shows the upcoming total lunar eclipse of October 8. (Click to enlarge)

By mid-July, I was holding the proofs of all four books in my hands. I was delighted with the quality of the books – better that any of my NASA publications. And the turn-around time from placing an order on-line to receiving a hard copy in the mail is less that 5 business days.

I’m so pleased with the process that I already have a list of several other book projects including a NASA-style eclipse bulletin for the total solar eclipse of 2017, which passes through the USA.

If you’re interested in learning more about the new eclipse canons or even ordering a copy, just visit these links:

Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses
Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses
Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses – Color Edition
Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses – Color Edition

You can also download a sample page of eclipse maps from each book at:

Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses – sample map page
Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses – sample map page

Finally, eclipse chaser Michael Zeiler (www.GreatAmericanEclipse.com ) has written a very nice review at:

First Impressions on the New Canon of Solar Eclipses

Now it’s time to begin work on my next book…

Fred Espenak

Events for September 2014

The following table gives the date and time of important astronomical events for September 2014. The time of each event is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). To convert GMT to Eastern Standard Time (EST) just subtract 5 hours. To convert GMT to other time zones, visit Time Zones. Some of the astronomical terms used in the calendar are explained in Definitions.

 Date    GMT   Astronomical Events for September 2014
------  -----  --------------------------------------------
        (h:m)

Sep 02  11:11  MOON AT FIRST QUARTER 
    05  20     Venus at Perihelion 
    08  03:29  Moon at Perigee: 358388 km
    09  01:38  FULL MOON 
    11  07:32  Moon at Descending Node 
    11  22     Mercury at Aphelion 
    16  02:05  MOON AT LAST QUARTER 
    20  13:56  Mercury-Spica: 0.5°S
    20  14:22  Moon at Apogee: 405846 km
    21  22     Mercury at Greatest Elong: 26.4°E
    23  02:30  Autumnal Equinox 
    24  06:14  NEW MOON 
    25  17:41  Moon at Ascending Node 
    26  09:32  Mercury 4.2°S of Moon
    28  04:46  Saturn 0.8°S of Moon: Occn.
    28  06:26  Mars-Antares: 3.0°N

As the events above transpire, I will post photographs of some of them at Recent Images.

Astronomical events calendars for complete years and for five time zones are available through the links below.

Time Zones Calendars of Astronomical Events
Greenwich Mean Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Eastern Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Central Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mountain Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Pacific Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

For additional years and time zones, see Calendars of Astronomical Events.

The sky events tables were all generated by a computer program I wrote (with THINK Pascal running on a Macintosh G4) using Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Fred Espenak


Events for August 2014

The following table gives the date and time of important astronomical events for August 2014. The time of each event is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). To convert GMT to Eastern Standard Time (EST) just subtract 5 hours. To convert GMT to other time zones, visit Time Zones. Some of the astronomical terms used in the calendar are explained in Definitions.

 Date    GMT   Astronomical Events for August 2014
------  -----  --------------------------------------------
        (h:m)

Aug 02  11:26  Moon at Ascending Node 
    03  10:02  Mars 2.2°S of Moon
    04  00:50  MOON AT FIRST QUARTER 
    04  10:54  Saturn 0.0°N of Moon: Occn.
    06  22:29  Venus-Pollux: 6.5°S
    08  16     Mercury at Superior Conjunction 
    10  17:43  Moon at Perigee: 356897 km
    10  18:09  FULL MOON 
    15  00:18  Moon at Descending Node 
    17  12:26  MOON AT LAST QUARTER 
    18  05:05  Venus-Beehive: 0.9°S
    18  06:48  Jupiter-Beehive: 1.1°S
    24  05:48  Venus 5.7°N of Moon
    24  06:09  Moon at Apogee: 406523 km
    25  14:13  NEW MOON 
    29  13     Neptune at Opposition 
    29  13:14  Moon at Ascending Node 
    31  19:21  Saturn 0.4°S of Moon: Occn.
    31  23:43  Mars 4.1°S of Moon

As the events above transpire, I will post photographs of some of them at Recent Images.

Astronomical events calendars for complete years and for five time zones are available through the links below.

Time Zones Calendars of Astronomical Events
Greenwich Mean Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Eastern Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Central Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mountain Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Pacific Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

For additional years and time zones, see Calendars of Astronomical Events.

The sky events tables were all generated by a computer program I wrote (with THINK Pascal running on a Macintosh G4) using Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Fred Espenak


Events for July 2014

The following table gives the date and time of important astronomical events for July 2014. The time of each event is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). To convert GMT to Eastern Standard Time (EST) just subtract 5 hours. To convert GMT to other time zones, visit Time Zones. Some of the astronomical terms used in the calendar are explained in Definitions.

 Date    GMT   Astronomical Events for July 2014
------  -----  --------------------------------------------
        (h:m)

Jul 01  15:08  Venus-Aldebaran: 4.0°N
    03  22:59  Earth at Aphelion: 1.01668 
    05  11:59  MOON AT FIRST QUARTER 
    06  01:21  Mars 0.2°S of Moon: Occn.
    06  09:50  Moon at Ascending Node 
    08  02:48  Saturn 0.4°N of Moon: Occn.
    12  11:25  FULL MOON 
    12  18     Mercury at Greatest Elong: 20.9°W
    13  08:27  Moon at Perigee: 358259 km
    13  18:39  Mars-Spica: 1.2°N
    16  19     Mercury-Venus: 6.2°
    18  21:21  Moon at Descending Node 
    19  02:08  MOON AT LAST QUARTER 
    24  18:16  Venus 4.4°N of Moon
    24  20     Jupiter-Sun Conjunction 
    26  22:42  NEW MOON 
    28  03:27  Moon at Apogee: 406570 km
    29  22     Mercury at Perihelion 

As the events above transpire, I will post photographs of some of them at Recent Images.

Astronomical events calendars for complete years and for five time zones are available through the links below.

Time Zones Calendars of Astronomical Events
Greenwich Mean Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Eastern Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Central Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mountain Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Pacific Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

For additional years and time zones, see Calendars of Astronomical Events.

The sky events tables were all generated by a computer program I wrote (with THINK Pascal running on a Macintosh G4) using Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Fred Espenak


Events for June 2014

The following table gives the date and time of important astronomical events for June 2014. The time of each event is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). To convert GMT to Eastern Standard Time (EST) just subtract 5 hours. To convert GMT to other time zones, visit Time Zones. Some of the astronomical terms used in the calendar are explained in Definitions.

 Date    GMT   Astronomical Events for June 2014
------  -----  --------------------------------------------
        (h:m)

Jun 03  04:25  Moon at Apogee: 404956 km
    05  20:39  MOON AT FIRST QUARTER 
    08  00:44  Mars 1.6°N of Moon
    09  05:36  Moon at Ascending Node 
    10  19:11  Saturn 0.6°N of Moon: Occn.
    13  04:11  FULL MOON 
    15  03:34  Moon at Perigee: 362062 km
    15  11:57  Jupiter-Pollux: 6.3°S
    19  18:39  MOON AT LAST QUARTER 
    19  23     Mercury at Inferior Conjunction 
    21  10:52  Summer Solstice 
    21  20:30  Moon at Descending Node 
    23  13:00  Venus-Pleiades: 5.6°S
    24  12:54  Venus 1.3°N of Moon
    27  08:09  NEW MOON 
    30  19:09  Moon at Apogee: 405932 km

As the events above transpire, I will post photographs of some of them at Recent Images.

Astronomical events calendars for complete years and for five time zones are available through the links below.

Time Zones Calendars of Astronomical Events
Greenwich Mean Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Eastern Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Central Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mountain Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Pacific Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

For additional years and time zones, see Calendars of Astronomical Events.

The sky events tables were all generated by a computer program I wrote (with THINK Pascal running on a Macintosh G4) using Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Fred Espenak


Events for May 2014

The following table gives the date and time of important astronomical events for May 2014. The time of each event is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). To convert GMT to Eastern Standard Time (EST) just subtract 5 hours. To convert GMT to other time zones, visit Time Zones. Some of the astronomical terms used in the calendar are explained in Definitions.

 Date    GMT   Astronomical Events for May 2014
------  -----  --------------------------------------------
        (h:m)

May 02  23     Mercury at Perihelion 
    06  10:22  Moon at Apogee: 404319 km
    07  03:15  MOON AT FIRST QUARTER 
    10  18     Saturn at Opposition 
    11  13:32  Mars 3.0°N of Moon
    12  22:06  Moon at Ascending Node 
    14  12:41  Saturn 0.5°N of Moon: Occn.
    14  19:16  FULL MOON 
    16  12     Venus at Aphelion 
    18  11:58  Moon at Perigee: 367099 km
    21  12:59  MOON AT LAST QUARTER 
    25  07     Mercury at Greatest Elong: 22.7°E
    25  15:43  Venus 2.3°S of Moon
    25  17:56  Moon at Descending Node 
    28  18:40  NEW MOON 

As the events above transpire, I will post photographs of some of them at Recent Images.

Astronomical events calendars for complete years and for five time zones are available through the links below.

Time Zones Calendars of Astronomical Events
Greenwich Mean Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Eastern Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Central Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mountain Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Pacific Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

For additional years and time zones, see Calendars of Astronomical Events.

The sky events tables were all generated by a computer program I wrote (with THINK Pascal running on a Macintosh G4) using Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Fred Espenak


Events for April 2014

The following table gives the date and time of important astronomical events for April 2014. The time of each event is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). To convert GMT to Eastern Standard Time (EST) just subtract 5 hours. To convert GMT to other time zones, visit Time Zones. Some of the astronomical terms used in the calendar are explained in Definitions.

 Date    GMT   Astronomical Events for April 2014
------  -----  --------------------------------------------
        (h:m)

Apr 01  02:30  Moon at Descending Node 
    02  07     Uranus-Sun Conjunction 
    07  08:31  MOON AT FIRST QUARTER 
    08  14:52  Moon at Apogee: 404503 km
    08  20     Mars at Opposition 
    14  18:24  Mars 3.5°N of Moon
    15  07:42  FULL MOON 
    15  07:47  Total Lunar Eclipse; mag=1.296
    15  13:22  Moon at Ascending Node 
    17  07:42  Saturn 0.4°N of Moon: Occn.
    22  07:52  MOON AT LAST QUARTER 
    23  00:27  Moon at Perigee: 369765 km
    25  23:16  Venus 4.4°S of Moon
    26  03     Mercury at Superior Conjunction 
    28  11:36  Moon at Descending Node 
    29  06:04  Non-Central Annular Solar Eclipse; mag=0.982
    29  06:14  NEW MOON 

As the events above transpire, I will post photographs of some of them at Recent Images.

The highlight of the month is the Total Lunar Eclipse of April 15. You’ll find complete details, diagrams and maps at this link.

Astronomical events calendars for complete years and for five time zones are available through the links below.

Time Zones Calendars of Astronomical Events
Greenwich Mean Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Eastern Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Central Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mountain Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Pacific Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

For additional years and time zones, see Calendars of Astronomical Events.

The sky events tables were all generated by a computer program I wrote (with THINK Pascal running on a Macintosh G4) using Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Fred Espenak


Events for March 2014

The following table gives the date and time of important astronomical events for March 2014. The time of each event is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). To convert GMT to Eastern Standard Time (EST) just subtract 5 hours. To convert GMT to other time zones, visit Time Zones. Some of the astronomical terms used in the calendar are explained in Definitions.

 Date    GMT   Astronomical Events for March 2014
------  -----  --------------------------------------------
        (h:m)

Mar 01  08:00  NEW MOON 
    04  17:45  Moon at Descending Node 
    08  13:27  MOON AT FIRST QUARTER 
    11  19:46  Moon at Apogee: 405367 km
    14  06     Mercury at Greatest Elong: 27.6°W
    16  17:09  FULL MOON 
    19  03:14  Mars 3.2°N of Moon
    19  06:30  Moon at Ascending Node 
    19  23     Mercury at Aphelion 
    20  16:57  Vernal Equinox 
    21  03:40  Saturn 0.2°N of Moon: Occn.
    22  21     Venus at Greatest Elong: 46.6°W
    24  01:46  MOON AT LAST QUARTER 
    26  15:10  Mars-Spica: 4.6°N
    27  09:52  Venus 3.6°S of Moon
    27  18:30  Moon at Perigee: 365706 km
    30  18:45  NEW MOON 

As the events above transpire, I will post photographs of some of them at Recent Images.

Astronomical events calendars for complete years and for five time zones are available through the links below.

Time Zones Calendars of Astronomical Events
Greenwich Mean Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Eastern Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Central Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mountain Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Pacific Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

For additional years and time zones, see Calendars of Astronomical Events.

The sky events tables were all generated by a computer program I wrote (with THINK Pascal running on a Macintosh G4) using Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Fred Espenak


Events for February 2014

The following table gives the date and time of important astronomical events for February 2014. The time of each event is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). To convert GMT to Eastern Standard Time (EST) just subtract 5 hours. To convert GMT to other time zones, visit Time Zones. Some of the astronomical terms used in the calendar are explained in Definitions.

 Date    GMT   Astronomical Events for February 2014
------  -----  --------------------------------------------
        (h:m)

Feb 02  20:27  Mars-Spica: 4.4°N
    04  00     Mercury at Perihelion 
    05  12:41  Moon at Descending Node 
    06  19:22  MOON AT FIRST QUARTER 
    12  05:09  Moon at Apogee: 406232 km
    14  23:53  FULL MOON 
    15  20     Mercury at Inferior Conjunction 
    19  23:59  Mars 3.1°N of Moon
    20  03:28  Moon at Ascending Node 
    21  22:39  Saturn 0.3°N of Moon: Occn.
    22  17:15  MOON AT LAST QUARTER 
    23  17     Neptune-Sun Conjunction 
    26  05:23  Venus 0.4°S of Moon: Occn.
    27  19:52  Moon at Perigee: 360439 km
    27  21:24  Mercury 2.9°S of Moon

As the events above transpire, I will post photographs of some of them at Recent Images.

Astronomical events calendars for complete years and for five time zones are available through the links below.

Time Zones Calendars of Astronomical Events
Greenwich Mean Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Eastern Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Central Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Mountain Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Pacific Standard Time 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

For additional years and time zones, see Calendars of Astronomical Events.

The sky events tables were all generated by a computer program I wrote (with THINK Pascal running on a Macintosh G4) using Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Fred Espenak


Enormous Sunspot in 2014

In the first days of 2014, an enormous sunspot appeared along the eastern edge of the Sun. Formally known as Active Region 1944 (or AR1944), this feature is actually composed over 60 individual sunspots. The largest of them is several times larger than planet Earth.

The Sun and Active Region 1944 as seen on 2014 Jan 07. For more information, see Sun and Sunspot.

The Sun and Active Region 1944 as seen on 2014 Jan 07. For more information, see Sun and Sunspot. Photo ©2014 by Fred Espenak

So large is AR 1944, that it can be seen with the naked eye provided you use a solar filter to attenuate the Sun’s intense light. I’ve spotted AR 1944 with nothing more that a pair of eclipse glasses left over from a past eclipse trip. Last night (Jan. 06), I photographed the Sun setting behind some of the rugged peaks of the Chiricahua Mountains near my home in Portal, AZ. I found it fascinating to watch the Sun and AR 1944 pass behind the distant spires before disappearing from view.

AR1944 is easily seen as the Sun sets among the rugged peaks of the Chiricahua Mountains on January 06. For more information, see Sunset with Sunspot. Photo ©2014 by Fred Espenak

AR 1944 is easily seen as the Sun sets among the rugged peaks of the Chiricahua Mountains on January 06. For more information, see Sunset with Sunspot. Photo ©2014 by Fred Espenak

In spite of being an active region on the Sun, AR 1944 has been relatively quite since its appearance. But that could change quickly with a powerful solar flare. According to SpaceWeather.com: “The sunspot has an unstable ‘beta-gamma-delta’ magnetic field that could erupt at any time. NOAA forecasters estimate a 75% chance of M-class flares and a 30% chance of X-flares on Jan. 7th.”

Since AR 1944 is now appears near the center of the Sun’s disk, it is aimed directly at Earth. So any major eruptions will spew high energy particles and x-rays directly at us, possibly triggering a major geomagnetic storm. Such events can damage satellites in high geosynchronous orbits. This is where most communications satellites orbit, so a major flare can effect global telecommunications. For more on this topic, see What impact do solar flares have on human activities?.

A closeup of AR1944 reveals that the large sunspot is actually composed of dozens of smaller sunspots. This image was made on January 7 from Portal, AZ . For more information, see Sunset with Sunspot. Photo ©2014 by Fred Espenak

A closeup of AR 1944 reveals that the large sunspot is actually composed of dozens of smaller sunspots. This image was made on January 7 from Portal, AZ . For more information, see Sunset with Sunspot. Photo ©2014 by Fred Espenak

Solar physicists and space weather experts will be watching AR 1944 closely in the coming days. And so will amateur astronomers and sky watchers around the globe.

Fred Espenak

Update: According to NASA: “The sun emitted a significant solar flare, an X1.2, peaking at 3:31 p.m. EST on Jan.7, 2014. This is the first significant flare of 2014, and it follows on the heels of mid-level flare earlier in the day.” The source of this flare is AR 1944.