Events for June 2017

The following table gives the date and time of important astronomical events for June 2017.

The time of each event is given in Greenwich Mean Time or GMT (a.k.a. Universal Time or UT). To convert GMT to Eastern Standard Time (EST) just subtract 5 hours. To convert GMT to other time zones, visit Time Zones. Some of the astronomical terms used in the calendar are explained in Definitions.

 Date    GMT   Astronomical Events for June 2017
------  -----  --------------------------------------------
        (h:m)
Jun 01  12:42  FIRST QUARTER MOON 
Jun 03  11     Venus at Greatest Elongation: 45.9°W
Jun 03  23:57  Jupiter 2.3°S of Moon
Jun 07  03:19  Mercury 5.3°S of Pleiades
Jun 08  22:21  Moon at Apogee: 406402 km
Jun 09  13:10  FULL MOON 
Jun 10  01:25  Saturn 3.1°S of Moon
Jun 13  00     Venus at Aphelion 
Jun 15  02:40  Moon at Descending Node 
Jun 15  09     Saturn at Opposition 
Jun 17  11:33  LAST QUARTER MOON 
Jun 19  13     Mercury at Perihelion 
Jun 20  21:13  Venus 2.4°N of Moon
Jun 21  04:25  Summer Solstice 
Jun 21  14     Mercury at Superior Conjunction 
Jun 22  14:23  Aldebaran 0.5°S of Moon
Jun 23  10:49  Moon at Perigee: 357938 km
Jun 24  02:31  NEW MOON 
Jun 26  11:18  Beehive 3.2°N of Moon
Jun 27  16:26  Moon at Ascending Node 
Jun 28  00:26  Regulus 0.1°N of Moon

As the events above transpire, I will post photographs of some of them at Recent Images.

Astronomical events calendars for complete years and for eight time zones are available through the links below.

Time Zones Calendars of Astronomical Events
Greenwich Mean Time 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Atlantic Standard Time 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Eastern Standard Time 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Central Standard Time 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Mountain Standard Time 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Pacific Standard Time 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Alaska Standard Time 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Hawaii Standard Time 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

For additional years, see Calendars of Astronomical Events.

The astronomical highlight of 2017 is the Great American Total Solar Eclipse on August 21. This is the first total eclipse visible from the continental USA in 38 years. For complete details on this highly anticipated event, see: 2017 Total Solar Eclipse (EclipseWise.com).

For information on all solar and lunar eclipses this year, see: Eclipses During 2017.

The Calendars of Astronomical Events were all generated by a computer program I wrote (with THINK Pascal running on a Macintosh G4) using Astronomical Algorithms (Jean Meeus).

Fred Espenak



Experiencing Totality

The great American total eclipse of the Sun is now just three months away. Those of us who have witnessed totality (that brief period when the the Sun’s brilliant disk is completely hidden revealing its glorious corona) realize how monumentally difficult it is to convey that experience to others. Words often fail when trying to explain the kaleidoscope of sights, sounds, feelings and emotions that consume us during this other-worldly event.

A series of nine images were combined into a time sequence of the total solar eclipse of 1999 August 11, from Lake Hazar, Turkey. The corona has been computer enhanced to show subtle details and prominences. Copyright 1999 by Fred Espenak.

A series of nine images were combined into a time sequence of the total solar eclipse of 1999 August 11, from Lake Hazar, Turkey. The corona has been computer enhanced to show subtle details and prominences. Copyright 1999 by Fred Espenak.

The best description I’ve ever read of the “Totality experience” was written over a century ago by Mabel Loomis Todd (“Total Eclipses of the Sun”, 1894). Todd was an American writer and editor who traveled to a number of total eclipses with her husband astronomer David Peck Todd during the late 19th Century.

Her description is not only expressive and passionate, but it accurately captures the variety and sequence of events in a most compelling way.

    “As the dark body of the Moon gradually steals its silent way across the brilliant Sun, little effect is at first noticed. The light hardly diminishes, apparently, and birds and animals detect no change.”

    During the partial phase a curious appearance may be noticed under any shade tree. Ordinarily, without an eclipse, the sunlight filters through the leaves in a series of tiny, overlapping disks on the ground, each of which is an image of the Sun. But when the partial phase of an eclipse is well advanced, these sunny spots become crescent in form, images of the now narrowing Sun.”

    The gaps between the leaves on a tree act like a series pinhole cameras that each project an image of the eclipse Sun on the ground below.

    The gaps between the leaves on a tree act like a series pinhole cameras that each project an image of the eclipse Sun on the ground below.

    “As the entire duration of an eclipse, partial phases and all, embraces two or three hours, often for an hour after ‘first contact’ insects still chirp in the grass, birds sing, and animals quietly continue their grazing. But a sense of uneasiness seems gradually to steal over all life. Cows and horses feed intermittently, bird songs diminish, grasshoppers fall quiet, and a suggestion of chill crosses the air. Darker and darker grows the landscape.

    As much as five minutes before total obscurity it may be possible to detect strange wavering lines of light and shade dance across the landscape – the ‘shadow bands’ as they are called – a curious and beautiful effect (related to the same atmospheric phenomenon that causes stars to twinkle).

    Shadow Bands

    Shadow bands are seen to ripple across a house in Sicily during a total eclipse in 1870.

    “Then, with frightful velocity, the actual shadow of the Moon is often seen approaching, a tangible darkness advancing almost like a wall, swift as imagination, silent as doom. The immensity of nature never comes quite so near as then, and strong must be the nerves not to quiver as this blue-black shadow rushes upon the spectator with incredible speed. A vast, palpable presence seems to overwhelm the world. The blue sky changes to gray or dull purple, speedily becoming more dusky, and a death-like trance seizes upon everything earthly. Birds with terrified cries, fly bewildered for a moment, and then silently seek their night quarters. Bats emerge stealthily. Sensitive flowers, the scarlet pimpernel, the African mimosa, close their delicate petals, and a sense of hushed expectancy deepens with the darkness.

    An assembled crowd is awed into silence almost invariably. Trivial chatter and senseless joking cease. Sometimes the shadow engulfs the observer smoothly, sometimes apparently with jerks; but all the world might well be dead and cold and turned to ashes. Often the very air seems to hold its breath for sympathy; at other times a lull suddenly awakens into a strange wind, blowing with unnatural effect.

    Then out upon the darkness, gruesome but sublime, flashes the glory of the incomparable corona, a silvery, soft, unearthly light, with radiant streamers, stretching at times millions of uncomprehended miles into space, while the rosy, flame-like prominences skirt the black rim of the moon in ethereal splendor. It becomes curiously cold, dew frequently forms, and the chill is perhaps mental as well as physical.”

Solar Corona

A composite image of the total solar eclipse of 2006 March 29 was shot in Jalu, Libya. It was produced from 26 individual exposures obtained with two separate telescopes and combined with computer software to reveal subtle details in the corona. Copyright 2006 by Fred Espenak.

Allow me to interject here for a moment. Totality never lasts more than 7 and 1/2 minutes. But this is exceedingly rare and will not happen again until 2186. It is far more common for totality to last a mere 2 or 3 minutes, and this is the case for the 2017 eclipse. Although the corona appears static (no visible motion) during this brief interval, it is never-the-less mesmerizing in its delicate gossamer beauty. This million-degree plasma is electrically charged and twisted by the intense magnetic fields of the Sun into a complex array of streamers, plumes, brushes, and loops. All of this surrounds the jet-black disk of the Moon appearing as an eerie hole in the heavens.

Many inexperienced writers often say that “day turns to night”, but the darkness of totality more closely resembles evening twilight when the first stars become visible. The colors of sunset/sunrise ring the horizon as you look out the edge of the lunar shadow into locations still bathed in sunlight. And the brightest planets are visible to the naked eye. In the case of 2017, Venus and Jupiter will easily be seen.

Totality

The eerie twilight of totality is seen against a backdrop of thorn acacia trees in this wide-angle photograph shot during the total solar eclipse of 2001 June 21 from Chisamba, Zambia. Copyright 2001 by Fred Espenak.

Although these sights are all impressive, the eye is invariably drawn back to the corona and its apparition-like appearance and exquisite detail.

Todd’s description of the end of totality continues:

    “Suddenly, instantaneously as a lightning flash, an arrow of actual sunlight strikes the landscape, and Earth comes to life again, while the corona and prominences melt into the returning brilliance, and occasionally the receding lunar shadow is glimpsed as it flies away with the tremendous speed of its approach.

    The great opportunity has come and gone, and happy is the astronomer who has kept the poetry of his nature in such abeyance that the merely accurate and scientific work has been accomplished; but in executing his prescribed program, the professional observer must exercise vast self-control.

    Professor Langley says of this superb sight: “The spectacle is one of which, though the man of science may prosaically state the facts, perhaps only the poet could render the impression.”

    I doubt if the effect of witnessing a total eclipse ever quite passes away. The impression is singularly vivid and quieting for days, and can never be wholly lost. A startling nearness to the gigantic forces of nature and their inconceivable operation seems to have been established. Personalities and towns and cities, and hates and jealousies, and even mundane hopes, grow very small and very far away.”

diamond ring effect

As totality ends, the Sun begins to emerge from behind the Moon producing the dazzling diamond ring effect. Copyright 2016 by Fred Espenak.

Totality – The Great America Eclipses of 2017 and 2024, my newly published book with Mark Littmann has a unique feature called “Moments of Totality.” These are personal anecdotes and stories shared by people who have witness totality themselves. A separate “Moment of Totality” appears after each chapter in the book adding many different voices to this topic.

Please share this post with anyone who is still unsure about whether a trip to the 2017 path of totality is worth the effort.

Fred Espenak


2017 Eclipse Stamp

While I wouldn’t call myself a philatelist, I’ve always been interested in collecting eclipse stamps since my early days as an eclipse chaser. On an eclipse expedition to Mauritania, Africa in 1973, I eagerly sought out a set of three Mauritanian stamps to commemorate that eclipse.

Eclipse stamps have been wonderful momentos and reminders of eclipse trips over the years. Indonesia (1983), the Philippines (1988), Mexico (1991), and Aruba (1998) are a few of the countries that have commemorated solar eclipses with postage stamps.

When I launched the MrEclipse.com website in 1999, one of the first features was a series of pages devoted to eclipse stamps. Some of my fellow eclipse chasers have generously shared scans of stamps missing from my collection.

Postage stamp from Hungary uses Espenak's eclipse bulletin map to commemorate the 1999 total solar eclipse through Europe.

Postage stamp from Hungary uses Espenak’s eclipse bulletin map to commemorate the 1999 total solar eclipse through Europe.

On some eclipse trips, I’ve been astonished to discover countries “borrowing” my maps from the NASA eclipse bulletins and featuring them on commemorative stamps. This first happened in Mongolia in 1997 and again in Hungary in 1999. While flattering, I was puzzled why the postal services in these countries never bothered to even contact me about this. Of course, they had every right to use the maps since they were in the public domain, but still, it would have been nice to be notified.

But in Libya, I was startled to find one of my eclipse photos staring back at me in a set of Libyan stamps commemorating the total solar eclipse of 2006. I guess I shouldn’t have been too surprised since I also saw vendors selling t-shirts featuring boot-legged copies of my eclipse photos presumably downloaded from MrEclipse.com.

Libya “borrowed” (without permission) one of Espenak’s eclipse photos (on the right) and reproduced it on a stamp (on the left) commemorating the total solar eclipse of March 29, 2006.

Libya “borrowed” (without permission) one of Espenak’s eclipse photos (on the right) and reproduced it on a stamp (on the left) commemorating the total solar eclipse of March 29, 2006.

My wife Pat and I took it in good humor and even framed a set of the Libyan eclipse stamps for our home in Arizona along with a print of the “pinched” eclipse photo for comparison.

With the upcoming total solar eclipse through the USA in 2017, I had heard many eclipse chasers contend that such a momentous occasion deserves commemoration with a postage stamp. While I heartily agreed with them, I had no idea how to petition the U. S. Postal Service and convince them of the merit of this idea. Nor was I even inclined to do so since I was busy writing several books about the 2017 eclipse.

I was surprised when a representative of the U. S. Postal Service contacted me looking for photographs to consider for just such a commemorative stamp. I quickly submitted a selection of images and image sequences for consideration.

At first, I was simply a consultant on the project with no promise of whether any of my images would be used or even if a stamp would ever be produced. All the while I was cautioned that all stamp projects are strictly confidential and tentative until approved by the Postmaster General. Months went by and I was asked to help with a press release and explanatory material that would accompany the introduction of the eclipse stamp.

This image of the solar corona is a High Dynamic Range composite made from 22 separate exposures. The original images were shot by Espenak in Jalu, Libya during the total solar eclipse of March 29, 2006. The USPS used this image to create the <em>Total Eclipse of the Sun, Forever® stamp</em>.

This image of the solar corona is a High Dynamic Range composite made from 22 separate exposures. The original images were shot by Espenak in Jalu, Libya during the total solar eclipse of March 29, 2006. The USPS used this image to create the Total Eclipse of the Sun, Forever® stamp.

Eventually, the artist in charge of the stamp design was considering some of my 2006 eclipse photos. Yes! Maybe? Still no promises. And I was still required to keep the project to myself.

Months passed and I was asked to verify the accuracy of an eclipse path map containing eclipse times for various cities. Finally, I was asked for a high resolution file of one of my 2006 eclipse photos. The Postal Service was exploring several different images for possible use on the stamp. They also wanted a corresponding Full Moon image to place over the eclipse which would become visible through the use of thermochromic ink. Well this was something I’d never heard of before! I searched though my collection of astrophotos for an appropriate Full Moon image as requested.

Just after the New Year, the news came that my images would definitely appear on the new stamp. I was delighted but still forbidden to share this information. I had to wait until the USPS issued a press release officially announcing the stamp. January, February and March rolled by as I got busy giving lectures and interviews about the Great American Eclipse.

On April 24, I reviewed the final version of the press release for the stamp. More corrections and tweaks were made. The official announcement finally happened on April 27.

The <em>Total Eclipse of the Sun, Forever® stamp</em> transforms into an image of the Moon from the heat of a finger. Espenak shot the eclipse photo from Jalu, Libya in 2006, while the Full Moon image was made from his observatory in Portal, Arizona in 2010. The stamp commemorates the total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017 that crosses the USA.

The Total Eclipse of the Sun, Forever® stamp transforms into an image of the Moon from the heat of a finger. Espenak shot the eclipse photo from Jalu, Libya in 2006, while the Full Moon image was made from his observatory in Portal, Arizona in 2010. The stamp commemorates the total solar eclipse of August 21, 2017 that crosses the USA.

“The Postal Service will soon release a first-of-its-kind stamp that changes when you touch it. The Total Eclipse of the Sun, Forever® stamp, which commemorates the August 21 eclipse, transforms into an image of the Moon from the heat of a finger.” (See: USPS Press Release)

The First-Day-of-Issue ceremony will take place on the summer solstice, June 20, 1:30 p.m. MT at the Art Museum of the University of Wyoming (UW) in Laramie. Pat and I are both planning to attend.

I’m honored to have my images on this unique stamp. But more importantly, the stamp will spread the news about America’s Great Eclipse to many more people than I could ever reach. A total eclipse of the Sun is simply the most beautiful, stunning and awe-inspiring astronomical event you can see with the naked eye. But you’ve got to be in the 70-mile-wide path of totality that runs across the nation from Oregon to South Carolina. So where will you be on August 21, 2017?

Fred Espenak