Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 2001 to 2100

Greenwich Mean Time


Introduction

The Moon's orbit is inclined ˜5.1° to Earth's orbit around the Sun. As a result, the Moon’s declination changes rapidly over the course of the draconic month.

As its declination changes, so does the azimuth of the lunar rise and set positions along the horizon. When the Moon reaches its minimum or maximum declination, the changing rise an set azimuths halt and reverse direction. This event occurs twice each draconic month and is called lunar standstill.

The gravitational pull of the Sun also forces the moon's orbit to slowly rotate westward on its axis ˜19° per year. In a period of ˜18.6 years, the nodes of the lunar orbit make one complete revolution. The effect on the Moon's declination extremes and lunar standstill points are to change them gradually from month to month.

The monthly declination extremes (and lunar standstills) are further modulated over the 18.6 year precession of the Moon's orbital nodes.

The table below gives the date and time (Greenwich Mean Time), as well as the Moon's declination for the greatest lunar standstills each year during the 21st Century (2001-2100). For a table of monthly lunar standstills over the 21st Century, see Lunar Standstills: 2001 - 2100.

For more information on lunar standstill, see the description in Wikipedia

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 2001 to 2100

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)



 Year          Minimum         Dec           Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 2001        Dec 16  07:51   -24.250       Dec  3  06:54    24.246        
 2002        Dec  6  07:00   -25.808       Nov 23  12:14    25.812      
 2003        Nov 26  09:16   -27.092       Nov 13  10:16    27.105       
 2004        Oct 19  08:00   -28.048       Nov  2  01:32    28.042      
 2005        Oct  9  16:42   -28.604       Sep 25  06:42    28.594      
 2006        Mar 22  16:53   -28.725       Sep 15  01:28    28.725      
 2007        Mar 12  16:11   -28.608       Feb 25  23:35    28.600      
 2008        Mar  1  08:03   -28.030       Feb 16  06:10    28.043      
 2009        Jan 22  14:02   -27.081       Feb  5  14:55    27.083      
 2010        Jan 12  08:33   -25.796       Jan 26  21:04    25.783      

 2011        Jan  2  10:06   -24.242       Jan 16  22:51    24.221      
 2012        Jan 20  02:12   -22.492       Jan  6  21:46    22.539      
 2013        Jan  9  15:22   -20.879       Jan 23  05:12    20.816      
 2014        Jan 27  16:31   -19.396       Jan 13  08:14    19.501      
 2015        Jan 18  06:17   -18.577       Jan  3  17:53    18.650      
 2016        Dec 29  03:30   -18.958       Dec 14  21:43    18.937      
 2017        Dec 19  09:31   -20.062       Dec  5  11:43    20.015      
 2018        Dec  9  11:12   -21.539       Dec 23  11:48    21.550      
 2019        Dec 26  20:11   -23.227       Dec 13  20:57    23.226      
 2020        Dec 15  22:23   -24.879       Dec  3  01:22    24.882      

 2021        Dec  6  02:25   -26.331       Nov 22  22:43    26.342      
 2022        Oct 30  01:04   -27.500       Nov 12  14:17    27.497      
 2023        Oct 20  09:19   -28.305       Oct  5  20:31    28.294      
 2024        Oct  9  11:53   -28.684       Sep 24  17:04    28.695      
 2025        Mar 22  06:47   -28.719       Mar  7  15:56    28.710      
 2026        Mar 11  21:12   -28.416       Feb 25  23:23    28.428      
 2027        Feb  2  02:38   -27.706       Feb 16  07:59    27.710      
 2028        Jan 22  21:35   -26.616       Jan 10  02:36    26.604      
 2029        Jan 12  00:15   -25.199       Jan 26  12:31    25.172      
 2030        Jan  2  08:17   -23.575       Jan 16  08:26    23.549      

 2031        Jan 20  05:10   -21.824       Jan  6  05:22    21.889      
 2032        Jan 10  16:49   -20.298       Jan 23  14:33    20.240      
 2033        Jan 27  14:55   -18.973       Jan 13  00:33    19.075      
 2034        Dec 12  00:24   -18.553       Dec 25  08:20    18.552      
 2035        Dec 29  15:02   -19.326       Dec 15  23:54    19.300      
 2036        Dec 18  19:32   -20.597       Dec  5  14:26    20.561      
 2037        Dec  8  22:32   -22.177       Dec 23  09:44    22.193      
 2038        Dec 26  13:42   -23.882       Dec 13  13:26    23.887       
 2039        Dec 16  19:27   -25.464       Dec  3  10:32    25.474       
 2040        Nov  8  17:47   -26.814       Nov 22  02:56    26.813      

 2041        Oct 30  01:24   -27.842       Oct 15  10:36    27.830      
 2042        Oct 20  02:47   -28.484       Oct  5  09:09    28.491      
 2043        Sep 12  11:52   -28.703       Sep 25  14:42    28.712      
 2044        Mar 21  10:24   -28.641       Mar  7  16:53    28.650      
 2045        Feb 11  15:40   -28.184       Feb 26  01:04    28.188      
 2046        Feb  1  11:30   -27.313       Jan 19  18:56    27.297      
 2047        Jan 22  15:26   -26.072       Jan  9  16:35    26.065      
 2048        Jan 13  00:06   -24.561       Jan 26  19:32    24.528      
 2049        Jan  2  09:17   -22.914       Jan 15  14:32    22.889      
 2050        Jan 20  05:14   -21.179       Jan  5  16:08    21.260      


 Year          Minimum         Dec           Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 2051        Jan 10  12:25   -19.761       Jan 23  08:46    19.697      
 2052        Jan 28  05:16   -18.646       Jan 14  01:12    18.725      
 2053        Dec 11  12:05   -18.771       Dec 25  11:21    18.770      
 2054        Dec 29  03:18   -19.763       Dec 16  01:47    19.747      
 2055        Dec 19  10:14   -21.183       Dec  6  12:59    21.161      
 2056        Dec  8  17:13   -22.839       Dec 23  00:17    22.858      
 2057        Dec 26  12:09   -24.515       Dec 12  21:41    24.523     
 2058        Nov 19  09:59   -26.009       Dec  2  15:32    26.007      
 2059        Nov  9  16:49   -27.235       Oct 26  00:57    27.221      
 2060        Oct 29  17:05   -28.126       Oct 15  01:31    28.128      

 2061        Sep 22  01:19   -28.618       Oct  5  08:07    28.627      
 2062        Mar 31  23:35   -28.700       Mar 18  10:23    28.705      
 2063        Feb 22  05:08   -28.506       Mar  8  17:57    28.509      
 2064        Feb 12  02:10   -27.877       Feb 26  20:12    27.859      
 2065        Feb  1  07:20   -26.842       Jan 19  06:25    26.834      
 2066        Jan 22  16:31   -25.483       Jan  8  23:20    25.491      
 2067        Jan 13  00:58   -23.918       Jan 26  00:50    23.887      
 2068        Jan  3  06:47   -22.264       Jan 16  02:15    22.237      
 2069        Jan 19  21:30   -20.561       Jan  5  11:24    20.637      
 2070        Jan 10  01:11   -19.284       Jan 23  11:27    19.199      

 2071        Dec 21  16:34   -18.491       Jan 14  05:41    18.487      
 2072        Dec 11  01:27   -19.074       Dec 25  11:40    19.089      
 2073        Dec 28  21:37   -20.262       Dec 15  22:11    20.261      
 2074        Dec 19  07:42   -21.818       Dec  6  03:04    21.807      
 2075        Dec  9  16:58   -23.506       Dec 23  08:10    23.513      
 2076        Nov 29  01:35   -25.107       Dec 12  04:08    25.101      
 2077        Nov 19  07:28   -26.504       Dec  2  01:46    26.488      
 2078        Nov  9  06:39   -27.622       Oct 25  18:03    27.619      
 2079        Oct  2  14:21   -28.371       Oct 16  01:28    28.379      
 2080        Sep 21  02:33   -28.695       Oct  5  09:52    28.682      

 2081        Mar  3  19:02   -28.668       Mar 18  10:33    28.673      
 2082        Feb 21  17:28   -28.301       Mar  8  11:15    28.286      
 2083        Feb 11  23:43   -27.496       Jan 29  19:56    27.490      
 2084        Jan  6  00:00   -26.325       Jan 19  11:13    26.337      
 2085        Jan 22  16:48   -24.889       Jan  8  06:00    24.917      
 2086        Jan 12  20:12   -23.281       Jan 25  13:48    23.242      
 2087        Jan  2  20:56   -21.607       Jan 15  23:20    21.560      
 2088        Jan 20  07:03   -19.974       Jan  6  13:09    20.031      
 2089        Jan  9  11:53   -18.913       Jan 23  16:27    18.817      
 2090        Dec 21  09:01   -18.635       Dec  8  10:25    18.615      

 2091        Dec 11  21:09   -19.452       Dec 26  05:42    19.486      
 2092        Dec 28  21:39   -20.841       Dec 15  10:58    20.845      
 2093        Dec 19  08:07   -22.474       Dec  5  10:38    22.462      
 2094        Dec  9  16:26   -24.130       Dec 22  16:44    24.122      
 2095        Nov 29  21:17   -25.668       Dec 12  17:10    25.653      
 2096        Nov 18  19:28   -26.983       Nov  4  10:37    26.978      
 2097        Oct 12  03:01   -27.965       Oct 25  18:36    27.974      
 2098        Oct  1  16:07   -28.555       Oct 16  02:35    28.546      
 2099        Sep 21  11:16   -28.686       Mar 29  02:46    28.678      
 2100        Mar  4  09:16   -28.575       Mar 19  01:50    28.566      


Summary

The greatest lunar standstills due to extremes in the Moon's declination during the 21st Century are listed below. The extremes occur at intervals of nearly two decades as a consequence of the ˜18.6 year period in the precession of the Moon's orbital nodes. Note also that the greatest extremes always occur near the equinoxes.

Greatest Lunar Standstills: 2001 to 2100

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)


 Year          Minimum         Dec           Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                           (°)

 2006        Mar 22  16:53   -28.725       Sep 15  01:28    28.725      
 2025        Mar 22  06:47   -28.719       Mar  7  15:56    28.710      
 2043        Sep 12  11:52   -28.703       Sep 25  14:42    28.712      
 2062        Mar 31  23:35   -28.700       Mar 18  10:23    28.705      
 2080        Sep 21  02:33   -28.695       Oct  5  09:52    28.682      
 2099        Sep 21  11:16   -28.686       Mar 29  02:46    28.678      

For a table of monthly lunar standstills over the 21st Century, see Lunar Standstills: 2001 - 2100. Additional information on lunar standstill is available in Wikipedia

Acknowledgement

All calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Algorithms used in predicting the Moon's perigee and apogee are based on Astronomical Algorithms by Jean Meeus (Willmann-Bell, Inc., Richmond, 1998).

Permission is freely granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by the acknowledgment:

    "Moon Perigee and Apogee Table Courtesy of Fred Espenak, www.Astropixels.com".


Moon Phase Mosaic
Various phases of the Moon during the synodic month.

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