Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 2001 to 2100

Universal Time


Introduction

The Moon's orbit is inclined ˜5.1° to Earth's orbit around the Sun. As a result, the Moon’s declination changes rapidly over the course of the draconic month. The extremes in the Moon's southern (or negative) declination ranges from about -18.2° to -28.7°. Similarly, the extremes in the Moon's northern (or positive) declination ranges from about +18.2° to +28.7°.

As its declination changes, so does the azimuth of the lunar rise and set positions along the horizon. When the Moon reaches its minimum or maximum declination, the changing rise an set azimuths halt and reverse direction. This event occurs twice each draconic month and is called lunar standstill.

The gravitational pull of the Sun also forces the moon's orbit to slowly rotate westward on its axis ˜19° per year. In a period of ˜18.6 years, the nodes of the lunar orbit make one complete revolution. The effect on the Moon's declination extremes and lunar standstill points are to change them gradually from month to month.

The monthly declination extremes (and lunar standstills) are further modulated over the 18.6 year precession of the Moon's orbital nodes.

The table below gives the date and time (Universal Time) as well as the Moon's declination for the greatest lunar standstills each year during for the century 2001 to 2100 . For a table of monthly lunar standstills over this century, see Monthly Lunar Standstills: 2001 to 2100 .

The azimuth of the Moon at moonrise depends on the Moon's declination (δ) and the observer's geographic latitude (φ). It can be calculated as follows:

        A = ArcCos (sin δ / cos φ)
        
        where
        
        A = azimuth
        δ = declination of the Moon
        φ = observer's latitude (north +, south -)
        

The azimuth of the Moon at moonset can be calculate by simply subtracting the moonrise azimuth from 360°.

Additional information on lunar standstill is available in Wikipedia

The values of ΔT used to convert Dynamical Time to Universal Time in this 100-year table range from 64 to 128 seconds. The uncertainty in the value of ΔT grows large for dates in the distant past or future.

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 2001 to 2020

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 2001        Dec 16  07:51   -24.250 +      Dec 03  06:54    24.246 +      
 2002        Dec 06  07:00   -25.808 +      Nov 23  12:14    25.812 +      
 2003        Nov 26  09:16   -27.092 +      Nov 13  10:16    27.105 +      
 2004        Oct 19  08:00   -28.048 +      Nov 02  01:32    28.042 +      
 2005        Oct 09  16:42   -28.604 +      Sep 25  06:42    28.594 +      
 2006        Mar 22  16:53   -28.725 +      Sep 15  01:28    28.725 +      
 2007        Mar 12  16:11   -28.608 +      Feb 25  23:35    28.600 +      
 2008        Mar 01  08:03   -28.030 +      Feb 16  06:10    28.043 +      
 2009        Jan 22  14:02   -27.081 +      Feb 05  14:55    27.083 +      
 2010        Jan 12  08:33   -25.796 +      Jan 26  21:04    25.783 +      

 2011        Jan 02  10:06   -24.242 +      Jan 16  22:51    24.221 +      
 2012        Jan 20  02:12   -22.492 +      Jan 06  21:46    22.539 +      
 2013        Jan 09  15:22   -20.879 +      Jan 23  05:12    20.816 +      
 2014        Jan 27  16:31   -19.396 +      Jan 13  08:14    19.501 +      
 2015        Jan 18  06:17   -18.577 +      Jan 03  17:53    18.650 +      
 2016        Dec 29  03:30   -18.958 +      Dec 14  21:43    18.937 +      
 2017        Dec 19  09:31   -20.062 +      Dec 05  11:43    20.015 +      
 2018        Dec 09  11:12   -21.539 +      Dec 23  11:48    21.550 +      
 2019        Dec 26  20:11   -23.227 +      Dec 13  20:57    23.226 +      
 2020        Dec 15  22:23   -24.879 +      Dec 03  01:22    24.882 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 2021 to 2040

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 2021        Dec 06  02:25   -26.331 +      Nov 22  22:43    26.342 +      
 2022        Oct 30  01:04   -27.500 +      Nov 12  14:17    27.497 +      
 2023        Oct 20  09:19   -28.305 +      Oct 05  20:31    28.294 +      
 2024        Oct 09  11:53   -28.684 +      Sep 24  17:04    28.695 +      
 2025        Mar 22  06:47   -28.719 +      Mar 07  15:56    28.710 +      
 2026        Mar 11  21:12   -28.416 +      Feb 25  23:23    28.428 +      
 2027        Feb 02  02:38   -27.706 +      Feb 16  08:00    27.710 +      
 2028        Jan 22  21:35   -26.616 +      Jan 10  02:36    26.604 +      
 2029        Jan 12  00:15   -25.199 +      Jan 26  12:31    25.172 +      
 2030        Jan 02  08:17   -23.575 +      Jan 16  08:26    23.549 +      

 2031        Jan 20  05:10   -21.824 +      Jan 06  05:22    21.889 +      
 2032        Jan 10  16:49   -20.298 +      Jan 23  14:33    20.240 +      
 2033        Jan 27  14:55   -18.973 +      Jan 13  00:33    19.075 +      
 2034        Dec 12  00:24   -18.553 +      Dec 25  08:20    18.552 +      
 2035        Dec 29  15:02   -19.326 +      Dec 15  23:54    19.300 +      
 2036        Dec 18  19:32   -20.597 +      Dec 05  14:26    20.561 +      
 2037        Dec 08  22:32   -22.177 +      Dec 23  09:44    22.193 +      
 2038        Dec 26  13:42   -23.882 +      Dec 13  13:26    23.887 +      
 2039        Dec 16  19:27   -25.464 +      Dec 03  10:32    25.474 +      
 2040        Nov 08  17:47   -26.814 +      Nov 22  02:56    26.813 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 2041 to 2060

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 2041        Oct 30  01:24   -27.842 +      Oct 15  10:36    27.830 +      
 2042        Oct 20  02:47   -28.484 +      Oct 05  09:09    28.491 +      
 2043        Sep 12  11:52   -28.703 +      Sep 25  14:42    28.712 +      
 2044        Mar 21  10:24   -28.641 +      Mar 07  16:53    28.650 +      
 2045        Feb 11  15:40   -28.184 +      Feb 26  01:04    28.188 +      
 2046        Feb 01  11:30   -27.313 +      Jan 19  18:56    27.297 +      
 2047        Jan 22  15:26   -26.072 +      Jan 09  16:36    26.065 +      
 2048        Jan 13  00:07   -24.561 +      Jan 26  19:32    24.528 +      
 2049        Jan 02  09:17   -22.914 +      Jan 15  14:32    22.889 +      
 2050        Jan 20  05:15   -21.179 +      Jan 05  16:08    21.260 +      

 2051        Jan 10  12:25   -19.761 +      Jan 23  08:46    19.697 +      
 2052        Jan 28  05:17   -18.646 +      Jan 14  01:12    18.725 +      
 2053        Dec 11  12:05   -18.771 +      Dec 25  11:21    18.770 +      
 2054        Dec 29  03:18   -19.763 +      Dec 16  01:47    19.747 +      
 2055        Dec 19  10:14   -21.183 +      Dec 06  12:59    21.161 +      
 2056        Dec 08  17:13   -22.839 +      Dec 23  00:17    22.858 +      
 2057        Dec 26  12:09   -24.515 +      Dec 12  21:42    24.523 +      
 2058        Nov 19  09:59   -26.009 +      Dec 02  15:32    26.007 +      
 2059        Nov 09  16:49   -27.235 +      Oct 26  00:58    27.221 +      
 2060        Oct 29  17:05   -28.126 +      Oct 15  01:32    28.128 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 2061 to 2080

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 2061        Sep 22  01:20   -28.618 +      Oct 05  08:08    28.627 +      
 2062        Mar 31  23:35   -28.700 +      Mar 18  10:24    28.705 +      
 2063        Feb 22  05:09   -28.506 +      Mar 08  17:58    28.509 +      
 2064        Feb 12  02:10   -27.877 +      Feb 26  20:13    27.859 +      
 2065        Feb 01  07:20   -26.842 +      Jan 19  06:26    26.834 +      
 2066        Jan 22  16:31   -25.483 +      Jan 08  23:20    25.491 +      
 2067        Jan 13  00:58   -23.918 +      Jan 26  00:50    23.887 +      
 2068        Jan 03  06:48   -22.264 +      Jan 16  02:15    22.237 +      
 2069        Jan 19  21:30   -20.561 +      Jan 05  11:24    20.637 +      
 2070        Jan 10  01:11   -19.284 +      Jan 23  11:28    19.199 +      

 2071        Dec 21  16:34   -18.491 +      Jan 14  05:41    18.487 +      
 2072        Dec 11  01:27   -19.074 +      Dec 25  11:40    19.089 +      
 2073        Dec 28  21:38   -20.262 +      Dec 15  22:12    20.261 +      
 2074        Dec 19  07:43   -21.818 +      Dec 06  03:05    21.807 +      
 2075        Dec 09  16:59   -23.506 +      Dec 23  08:11    23.513 +      
 2076        Nov 29  01:35   -25.107 +      Dec 12  04:08    25.101 +      
 2077        Nov 19  07:28   -26.504 +      Dec 02  01:46    26.488 +      
 2078        Nov 09  06:39   -27.622 +      Oct 25  18:03    27.619 +      
 2079        Oct 02  14:22   -28.371 +      Oct 16  01:29    28.379 +      
 2080        Sep 21  02:33   -28.695 +      Oct 05  09:53    28.682 +      

Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills: 2081 to 2100

Universal Time (UT1)

 
 Year          Minimum         Dec            Maximum         Dec 
                               (°)                            (°)

 2081        Mar 03  19:02   -28.668 +      Mar 18  10:34    28.673 +      
 2082        Feb 21  17:29   -28.301 +      Mar 08  11:16    28.286 +      
 2083        Feb 11  23:44   -27.496 +      Jan 29  19:57    27.490 +      
 2084        Jan 06  00:01   -26.325 +      Jan 19  11:14    26.337 +      
 2085        Jan 22  16:49   -24.889 +      Jan 08  06:01    24.917 +      
 2086        Jan 12  20:13   -23.281 +      Jan 25  13:48    23.242 +      
 2087        Jan 02  20:57   -21.607 +      Jan 15  23:21    21.560 +      
 2088        Jan 20  07:04   -19.974 +      Jan 06  13:10    20.031 +      
 2089        Jan 09  11:54   -18.913 +      Jan 23  16:28    18.817 +      
 2090        Dec 21  09:02   -18.635 +      Dec 08  10:26    18.615 +      

 2091        Dec 11  21:10   -19.452 +      Dec 26  05:43    19.486 +      
 2092        Dec 28  21:41   -20.841 +      Dec 15  10:59    20.845 +      
 2093        Dec 19  08:08   -22.474 +      Dec 05  10:39    22.462 +      
 2094        Dec 09  16:27   -24.130 +      Dec 22  16:45    24.122 +      
 2095        Nov 29  21:18   -25.668 +      Dec 12  17:11    25.653 +      
 2096        Nov 18  19:29   -26.983 +      Nov 04  10:38    26.978 +      
 2097        Oct 12  03:02   -27.965 +      Oct 25  18:37    27.974 +      
 2098        Oct 01  16:08   -28.555 +      Oct 16  02:36    28.546 +      
 2099        Sep 21  11:17   -28.686 +      Mar 29  02:47    28.678 +      
 2100        Mar 04  09:17   -28.575 +      Mar 19  01:51    28.566 +      

Acknowledgement

All calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy. Algorithms used in predicting the Moon's lunar standstills are based on Astronomical Algorithms by Jean Meeus (Willmann-Bell, Inc., Richmond, 1998).

Permission is granted to reproduce this data when accompanied by a link to this page and the credit line:

    "Greatest Annual Lunar Standstills Table Courtesy of Fred Espenak, www.Astropixels.com".